A cognitive radio-based fully blind multihop rendezvous protocol for unknown environments

Saim Ghafoor, Cormac J. Sreenan, Kenneth N. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In Cognitive Radio networking, the blind rendezvous problem is when two or more nodes must establish a link, but where they have no predefined schedule or common control channel for doing so. The problem becomes more challenging when the information about the existence of other nodes in the network, their topology, and primary user activity are also unknown, identified here as a fully blind rendezvous problem. In this paper, a novel and fully blind multihop (FBM) rendezvous framework is proposed with an extended modular clock algorithm (EMCA). The EMCA-FBM is a fully blind multihop rendezvous protocol as it assumes the number of nodes, primary radio activity and topology information as unknown. It is shown to work with different Cognitive Radio operating policies to achieve adaptiveness towards the unknown primary radio activity, and self-organization for autonomously handling the rendezvous process by using transmission schedules. It is capable of working without any information of neighbor nodes and terminating the rendezvous process whenever all or sufficient nodes are discovered. The proposed FBM is also shown to work as a general framework to extend existing single hop rendezvous protocols to work as a multihop rendezvous protocol. In comparison with other modified blind rendezvous strategies for multihop network, the combination of the proposed EMCA-FBM protocol and operating policies is shown to be effective in improving the average time to rendezvous (up to 70%) and neighbor discovery accuracy (almost 100%) while reducing harmful interference.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102261
JournalAd Hoc Networks
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2020


  • Blind rendezvous
  • Cognitive radio networks
  • Disaster response networks
  • Fully blind rendezvous
  • Multihop rendezvous
  • Operating policies
  • Unknown environments


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