A cooperative mobile throwbox-based routing protocol for social-aware delay tolerant networks

Malik Muhammad Qirtas, Yasir Faheem, Mubashir Husain Rehmani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In delay tolerant networks (DTNs), nodes have intermittent connectivity patterns due to various factors such as mobility, sparse network topology, and unpredictable movement patterns. In such networks, nodes store messages, carry them along as they move and forward them opportunistically whenever an encounter occurs. In many DTN applications, such as in disaster situations and remote regions with no communications infrastructure, we can envisage a network topology formed by the mobility and contact pattern of people carrying their mobile devices. The social behavior of people (nodes) in Spatio-temporal dimensions governs the formation of such a topology. To improve data dissemination in such networks, several works have proposed to utilize social-aware metrics for the selection of relays. However, existing routing protocols for DTNs may perform poorly in the scenarios in which nodes are localized in multiple small regions, and the topology is sparse such as in co-located villages in remote regions with no communication infrastructure. This work proposes a Cooperative mobile throwbox-based routing protocol (CMTR) for social-aware DTNs. In CMTR, static and mobile ThrowBoxes (TBs) are deployed to improve the efficiency of a DTN. The static and mobile TBs cooperatively relay data to enhance network efficiency. Performance evaluation via simulations in ONE simulator shows that CMTR improves the data delivery ratio, delays, and energy efficiency as compared to Epidemic routing and Bubble Rap routing schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3997-4009
Number of pages13
JournalWireless Networks
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Delay tolerant networks
  • Routing
  • Social-aware
  • Throwbox


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