Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a Scoping Review of Extant Empirical Literature

Evelyn Hearne, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout, Amanda Atkinson, Jim McVeigh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The use of image- and performance-enhancing drugs particularly anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is not a new phenomenon. AAS use is not limited to athletes, with mainstream populations using these drugs for aesthetic purposes. Prevalence has been predominantly in Western countries, with some recent studies indicating a rise in popularity in the Eastern Mediterranean region. A scoping review of extant empirical literature from the Eastern Mediterranean region described and mapped what is known about the extent of AAS in the region. Four themes emerged from the review: (1) profile of AAS users; (2) AAS within gymnasium practice; (3) AAS regimes of use; and (4) knowledge and understanding of the AAS concept and related adverse effects. The review highlights a relatively new phenomenon of AAS use in the Eastern Mediterranean. The review underscores the need to carry out further research, particularly qualitative and quantitative studies with both genders, and cognisant of the complexities of culture and religiosity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1162-1189
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Anabolic steroids
  • Eastern Mediterranean
  • Gym users
  • Image- and performance-enhancing drugs


Dive into the research topics of 'Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a Scoping Review of Extant Empirical Literature'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this