The increased complexity of communication systems has led to new challenges in network management and more specifically, efficient mechanisms to manage communication resources. The vision of autonomic networking aims to overcome these challenges by incorporating self-governance into communication network devices, in order to improve overall efficiency and minimize human intervention. Since biological systems exhibit properties that meet the requirements of self-governance, this article proposes a bio-inspired approach to efficiently manage resources in IPbased core networks, called Bio-Inspired Resource Self-Management. The approach aims to provide a holistic solution for ISPs to manage their resources at different timescales as well as automating the interactions with underlying carrier network operators for dynamic resource provisioning. The implemented solution, in a simulator, has shown improved performance compared to traditional approaches.