This literature review is focused on issues related to the development and usefulness of cardiac electrophysiology studies and ablation procedures. During the past decade, the efficacy of these developments has been proven. The resultant emergence of specialists trained as electrophysiologists represents an important milestone in the advancement of cardiology departments internationally. The majority of research papers on the subject have been published within the past 5 years. Most of the research has evolved from North America and Britain. On searching the literature, it was found that many gaps remain. There is a striking dearth of documented data regarding electrophysiology studies and ablation therapy within the Irish medical and nursing literature, and no previous literature review on the topic was found in a wider search. This paper provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses associated with these procedures.