Clove oil based co-surfactant free microemulsion of flurbiprofen: Improved solubility with ameliorated drug-induced gastritis

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Abstract

Flurbiprofen, an NSAID, is a water insoluble drug that is also notorious for gastric irritation and inflammation. This study was aimed at using a natural gastroprotective oil as the internal phase to develop flurbiprofen microemulsion (ME) to improve it solubility and ameliorate its gastric side effects. Upon screening of ME components for drug solubility, clove oil, tween 80 and transcutol were identified as the oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, respectively, with higher flurbiprofen solubility. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams revealed that the ME made with surfactant only and without co-surfactant displayed the similar ME region as made with the mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant. Furthermore, drug loaded oil was also used to draw pseudo-ternary phase diagram and a very little decrease in the ME region was observed. Therefore, co-surfactant free flurbiprofen loaded ME was developed to avoid side effects associated with the use of excessive surfactant quantities. ME were found to possess size in the range of 11-41 nm with PDI ˂0.5 and a slightly negative charge. Conductivity, pH and refractive indices of the selected MEs were well in the range. Drug release studies indicated maximum drug release from MEs within 5 min. Analysis of the gastric mucosa of rats after oral administration of drug solution and drug loaded ME confirmed that clove oil based ME provided significant protection against the NSAIDs induced gastric damage
Original languageEnglish (Ireland)
JournalPakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2019

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