Effects of emulsifying salts reduction on imitation cheese manufacture and functional properties

M. El-Bakry, E. Duggan, E. D. O'Riordan, M. O'Sullivan

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Imitation cheese (48%, 50% and 52% moisture) was manufactured using a Farinograph. The standard emulsifying salts (ES) concentration was 1.4%, giving a casein:ES ratio of 19:12. The effect of ES reduction on cheese manufacture and functionality, assessed by texture profile analysis, heat-induced flowability and dynamic rheology, was studied. Microstructure was investigated by light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Reducing ES increased processing time and hardness and decreased flowability and fat globule diameter. In comparison to standard ES, a reduction of up to 20% produced cheeses in reasonable processing times with slightly altered functionality. On further ES reduction, processing times greatly increased giving much harder and less meltable cheeses. Reducing ES by 40% increased processing times ∼3-fold, halved fat globule diameter and flowability and doubled hardness, compared to standard cheeses. At ES reduction above 40% the product obtained, after prolonged processing time, bore little resemblance to cheese.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-603
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Emulsifying salts
  • Farinograph
  • Imitation cheese
  • Torque measurement


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