Rising energy costs, losses in the present-day electricity grid, risks from nuclear power generation, and global environmental changes are motivating a transformation of the conventional ways of generating electricity. Globally, there is a desire to rely more on renewable energy resources (RERs) for electricity generation. RERs reduce greenhouse gas emissions and may have economic benefits, e.g., through applying demand side management with dynamic pricing so as to shift loads from fossil fuel-based generators to RERs. The electricity grid is presently evolving toward an intelligent grid, the so-called smart grid (SG). One of the major goals of the future SG is to move toward 100% electricity generation from RERs, i.e., toward a 100% renewable grid. However, the disparate, intermittent, and typically widely geographically distributed nature of RERs complicates the integration of RERs into the SG. Moreover, individual RERs have generally lower capacity than conventional fossil fuel-based plants, and these RERs are based on a wide spectrum of different technologies. In this article, we give an overview of recent efforts that aim to integrate RERs into the SG. We outline the integration of RERs into the SG along with their supporting communication networks. We also discuss ongoing projects that seek to integrate RERs into the SG around the globe. Finally, we outline future research directions on integrating RERs into the SG.
- Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)
- communication architecture
- distributed energy resources (DERs)
- renewable energy resources (RERs)
- smart grid (SG)