The objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary Bacillus altitudinis spore supplementation during day (D)0–28 post-weaning (PW) and/or D29–56 PW compared with antibiotic and zinc oxide (AB + ZnO) supplementation on pig growth and gut microbiota. Eighty piglets were selected at weaning and randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments: (1) negative control (Con/Con); (2) probiotic spores from D29–56 PW (Con/Pro); (3) probiotic spores from D0–28 PW (Pro/Con); (4) probiotic spores from D0–56 PW (Pro/Pro) and (5) AB + ZnO from D0–28 PW. Overall, compared with the AB + ZnO group, the Pro/Con group had lower body weight, average daily gain and feed intake and the Pro/Pro group tended to have lower daily gain and feed intake. However, none of these parameters differed between any of the probiotic-treated groups and the Con/Con group. Overall, AB + ZnO-supplemented pigs had higher Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae and lower Lactobacillaceae and Spirochaetaceae abundance compared to the Con/Con group, which may help to explain improvements in growth between D15–28 PW. The butyrate-producing genera Agathobacter, Faecalibacterium and Roseburia were more abundant in the Pro/Con group compared with the Con/Con group on D35 PW. Thus, whilst supplementation with B. altitudinis did not enhance pig growth performance, it did have a subtle, albeit potentially beneficial, impact on the intestinal microbiota.