In this study, the authors investigate changes in the presynaptic terminal of the dentate gyrus that accompany 2 types of hippocampal-dependent plasticity: spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). Parallel changes occurred in the dentate gyrus of rats that had undergone training in the Morris water maze and had sustained LTP. In both cases, KCI-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor release was increased, and this was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of TrkB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK. Glutamate release was also enhanced, and the data suggest that this may be a consequence of increased activation of TrkB and ERK. Because the data indicate that similar cellular modifications are shared by these 2 forms of plasticity, they provide circumstantial evidence that LTP satisfies some of the requirements of a memory-inducing cellular substrate.