Background: In 2011 the European Commission launched the report '. The State of Men's Health in Europe' covering the health of 290 million men across 34 European countries. This is the first official statement on the health of men in Europe. The work was carried out by a team of writers from across Europe aided by a management advisory group, a reviewing group and a broader reference group. Methods: Data from major international databases were used to compile a detailed analysis based on population data, lifestyle and preventable risk factors, use of health services and morbidity and mortality data based on the ICD-10, with the results focused on the " European shortlist" of 65 causes of death. Results: Changes in male demographics are creating a reversal in the age distribution ratio, with a decreasing younger population but increasing numbers of elderly men. The data on morbidity and mortality are most striking in relation to the high levels of premature death in men across the disease spectrum with marked differences between countries. Conclusions: The very large variations seen in the health of men across Europe demonstrates that much of men's higher risk of premature death is caused by socio-cultural factors and therefore avoidable. No country should be complacent about the health of its male population.