MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules, with their role in gene silencing and translational repression by binding to target mRNAs. Since it was discovered in 1993, miRNA are found in all eukaryotic cells conserved across the species. In recent years, regulation of miRNAs are extensively studied for their role in biological processes as well as in development and progression of various human diseases including retinal disorder, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This chapter summarises miRNA biogenesis and explores their potential roles in a variety of diseases. miRNAs holds huge potential for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as predictors of drug response.