Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

Michael Bergin, Ian Norman, Michelle Foley, Richard Harris, Anna Rapca, Eileen Rich, Marie Claire Van Hout

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-364
Number of pages14
JournalActa Pharmaceutica
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2015


  • codeine
  • dependence
  • misuse
  • over the counter
  • policy


Dive into the research topics of 'Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this