Aim: This article aims to outline the key concepts in hybrid warfare and cyberattack to better inform nurse managers in their strategic contribution to the defence of critical digital infrastructure. Background: Hybrid warfare often targets a nation's critical digital infrastructure including that of health services. Hybrid warfare against national health services, primarily through cyberattack, is likely to increase in a more destabilized and conflictual international environment. Evaluation: Key literature, reports and assessments on hybrid warfare, advanced persistent threats and cyberattack referenced to health services were analysed. Key issue: Health services are a key element of a nation's critical digital infrastructure and as such are a strategic target in hybrid warfare. Cyberattack through exploiting clinicians', such as nurses, online susceptibilities is a key route of attack. Nurse managers, to be effective planners, need to be fully informed about the context and specific nature of cyberattack. Conclusion(s): Articles about the relationship between hybrid warfare and cyberattack on health services digital infrastructure are rarely aimed at nurse managers. Implications for Nursing Management: Nurse managers need to be fully informed about the geopolitical nature of cyberattacks if they are to be fully consulted and listened to in response planning in defence of health services' digital infrastructure.
- health care
- hybrid warfare