Spectroscopy of highly charged ions and its relevance to EUV and soft x-ray source development

Gerry O'Sullivan, Bowen Li, Rebekah D'Arcy, Padraig Dunne, Paddy Hayden, Deirdre Kilbane, Tom McCormack, Hayato Ohashi, Fergal O'Reilly, Paul Sheridan, Emma Sokell, Chihiro Suzuki, Takeshi Higashiguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


The primary requirement for the development of tools for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) has been the identification and optimization of suitable sources. These sources must be capable of producing hundreds of watts of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation within a wavelength bandwidth of 2% centred on 13.5 nm, based on the availability of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) with a reflectivity of ∼70% at this wavelength. Since, with the exception of large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers, such radiation is only emitted from plasmas containing moderately to highly charged ions, the source development prompted a large volume of studies of laser produced and discharge plasmas in order to identify which ions were the strongest emitters at this wavelength and the plasma conditions under which their emission was optimized. It quickly emerged that transitions of the type 4p64dn - -4p54dn+1 -+ -4dn-14f in the spectra of Sn IX to SnXIV were the best candidates and work is still ongoing to establish the plasma conditions under which their emission at 13.5 nm is maximized. In addition, development of other sources at 6.X nm, where X -∼ -0.7, has been identified as the wavelength of choice for so-called Beyond EUVL (BEUVL), based on the availability of La/B based MLMs, with theoretical reflectance approaching 80% at this wavelength. Laser produced plasmas of Gd and Tb have been identified as potential source elements, as n -= -4 - -n -= -4 transitions in their ions emit strongly near this wavelength. However to date, the highest conversion efficiency (CE) obtained, for laser to BEUV energy emitted within the 0.6% wavelength bandwidth of the available mirrors is only 0.8%, compared with values of 5% for the 2% bandwidth relevant for the Mo/Si mirrors at 13.5 nm. This suggests a need to identify other potential sources or the selection of other wavelengths for BEUVL. This review deals with the atomic physics of the highly-charged ions relevant to EUV emission at these wavelengths. It considers the developments that have contributed to the realization of the 5% CE at 13.5 nm which underpins the production of high-volume lithography tools, and those that will be required to realize BEUV lithography.

Original languageEnglish
Article number144025
JournalJournal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2015
Externally publishedYes


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