Spectroscopy of highly charged ions for extreme ultraviolet lithography

Gerry O'Sullivan, Padraig Dunne, Takeshi Higashiguchi, Domagoj Kos, Oisín Maguire, Takanori Miyazaki, Fergal O'Reilly, John Sheil, Emma Sokell, Deirdre Kilbane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


After almost three decades of research, commercial sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) at 13.5 nm are now being manufactured and EUVL is expected to be introduced finally in 2018 or 2019. The source is based on laser produced plasmas (LPPs) from tin micro-droplets using double pulse irradiation in a pre-pulse/main pulse configuration. The currently accepted configuration uses a CO2 laser main pulse to minimize self-absorption in the transitions responsible for the emission at 13.5 nm. The conversion efficiency (CE) of laser to in-band EUV energy in commercial systems is currently around 4% and values up to 6% have recently been observed. However the possibility of attaining significantly higher figures has been predicted by plasma modelling and research is still ongoing to increase the CE. The present paper describes the physical processes that occur in Sn LPPs and possible routes to attaining higher CE values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-8
Number of pages6
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes


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