Spin Seebeck Effect in Iron Oxide Thin Films: Effects of Phase Transition, Phase Coexistence, And Surface Magnetism

Amit Chanda, Derick Detellem, Yen Thi Hai Pham, Jenae E. Shoup, Anh Tuan Duong, Raja Das, Sunglae Cho, Dmitri V. Voronine, M. Tuan Trinh, Dario A. Arena, Sarath Witanachchi, Hariharan Srikanth, Manh Huong Phan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Understanding the effects of phase transition, phase coexistence, and surface magnetism on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in a magnetic system is essential to manipulate the spin to charge current conversion efficiency for spincaloritronic applications. We aim to elucidate these effects by performing a comprehensive study of the temperature dependence of the LSSE in biphase iron oxide (BPIO = α-Fe2O3 + Fe3O4) thin films grown on Si (100) and Al2O3 (111) substrates. A combination of a temperature-dependent anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and electrical resistivity measurements show that the contribution of the ANE from the BPIO layer is negligible in comparison to the intrinsic LSSE in the Si/BPIO/Pt heterostructure, even at room temperature. Below the Verwey transition of the Fe3O4 phase, the total signal across BPIO/Pt is dominated by the LSSE. Noticeable changes in the intrinsic LSSE signal for both Si/BPIO/Pt and Al2O3/BPIO/Pt heterostructures around the Verwey transition of the Fe3O4 phase and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) Morin transition of the α-Fe2O3 phase are observed. The LSSE signal for Si/BPIO/Pt is found to be almost 2 times greater than that for Al2O3/BPIO/Pt; however, an opposite trend is observed for the saturation magnetization. Magnetic force microscopy reveals the higher density of surface magnetic moments of the Si/BPIO film in comparison to the Al2O3/BPIO film, which underscores the dominant role of interfacial magnetism on the LSSE signal and thereby explains the larger LSSE for Si/BPIO/Pt.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13468-13479
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • anomalous Nernst effect
  • inverse spin Hall effect
  • iron oxide thin film
  • magnetism
  • spin Seebeck effect
  • spincaloritronics


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