Strangers in strange lands: Mitochondrial proteins found at extra-mitochondrial locations

David P. Scanlon, Michael W. Salter

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    The mitochondrial proteome is estimated to contain ∼1100 proteins, the vast majority of which are nuclear-encoded, with only 13 proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The import of these nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria was widely believed to be unidirectional, but recent discoveries have revealed that many these ‘mitochondrial’ proteins are exported, and have extra-mitochondrial activities divergent from their mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, three of the exported proteins discovered thus far are mitochondrially encoded and have significantly different extra-mitochondrial roles than those performed within the mitochondrion. In this review, we will detail the wide variety of proteins once thought to only reside within mitochondria, but now known to ‘emigrate’ from mitochondria in order to attain ‘dual citizenship’, present both within mitochondria and elsewhere.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)25-37
    Number of pages13
    JournalBiochemical Journal
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 07 Jan 2019


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