The "ice-mile": Case study of 2 swimmers' selected physiological responses and performance

John Kenny, Sarahjane Cullen, Giles D. Warrington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: "Ice-mile" swimming presents significant physiological challenges and potential safety issues, but few data are available. This study examined deep body temperature (BT), respiratory rate (RR), and swim performance in 2 swimmers completing an ice-mile swim of 1 mile (1600 m) in water less than 5°C. Methods: Two male cold-water-habituated swimmers completed a 1-mile lake swim in 3.9°C water. For comparative purposes, they completed an indoor 1-mile swim in 28.1°C water. The Equivital physiological monitoring system was used to record BT and RR before, during, and after each swim. Total time to complete the swims and 400-m splits were recorded. Results: One swimmer became hypothermic after 27 min while swimming, reaching BT of 33.7°C at swim's end. On exiting the water the swimmers experienced large BT after-drops of -3.6°C and -2.4°C, reaching low points of 33.2°C and 31.3°C 38 and 23 min postswim, respectively. Respiratory rate and swim pace decreased over the course of the ice-mile swim for both swimmers. Swim pace for 1 swimmer declined sharply in the final 400-m lap of the ice mile when he was hypothermic. Both swimmers remained hypothermic 60 min postswim (34.2°C and 33.4°C). Conclusions: Ice-mile swimmers may become hypothermic while swimming, and the postswim BT after drop may expose them to dangerous levels of hypothermia. Pace and RR should be monitored as proxies for a swimmer's physiological state. Postswim recovery should also be monitored for hypothermia for at least 1 h.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-714
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • After-drop
  • Deep body temperature
  • Hypothermia
  • Respiratory rate
  • Swim performance


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